Properties Of Water

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Sources of fresh water are divided into five types :

  • Surface water
  • Ground water
  • Saline water
  • Under river water
  • Frozen water
  • Desalination

Different forms of water are as follows :

  • Liquid to gas : By evaporation
  • Gas to liquid : By condensation
  • Solid to gas : By melting and evaporation
  • Gas to solid : By sublimation when gas becomes cool

Hard Water

This is saturated with calcium, iron, magnesium, and many other inorganic minerals. All water in lakes, rivers, on the ground, in deep wells, is classified as hard water. (Many city systems take water from rivers or lakes, or reservoirs supplied with mountain water; they erroneously call their supplies “soft water” but it is soft only in comparison with water which is harder.)

Boiled Water

Boiling helps remove some of the germs, but concentrates the inorganic minerals. Other germs are carried into a fertile element for rapid and lusty propagation of germs and viruses already in the body.

Raw Water

This has not been boiled. Raw water may be hard (as calcium hardened water) or soft as rain water. It contains millions of germs and viruses. In every densely inhabited drop some of these viruses and bacteria may adversely affect the thyroid gland, the liver and other vital body organs.

Snow Water

This is frozen rain. Freezing does not eliminate any germs. All snowflakes have hardened mineral deposits. Melt the cleanest snow and you will find it saturated with dirt, inorganic minerals, germs and viruses.

Rain Water

This has been condensed from the clouds. The first drop is distilled water. But when it falls as rain, it picks up germs, dust, smoke, minerals, strontium 90, lead and many other atmospheric chemicals. By the time rain water reaches the earth it is so saturated with dust and pollutants it may be yellowish in colour. Water is supposed to act as an atmosphere purifier. If we had no air pollution, we would have far less pollution in our drinking water.

Filtered Water

This water has passed through a fine strainer, called a filter. Some calcium and other solid substances are kept in the filter; there is no filter made which can prevent germs from passing through its fine meshes. Each pore of the finest filter is large enough for a million viruses to seep through in a few moments. A home filters usually only picks up suspended solids and is effective for the time, maybe only for hours, until it is filled up. Then it is ineffective even for removing suspended solids, and at the same time becomes a breeding ground for bacteria.

Soft Water

This water is soft in comparison with water which is harder. It may contain many trace minerals and chemicals, viruses and bacteria. It is not to be confused with “softened water.” Soft water may be classified as water which is harder than distilled water.

De-ionized Water

A process of exchanging “hard” ions for “soft.” The total ions are still present. The end result is the same. But the water has the appearance of being distilled. (Nature recognizes transformation but not extinction!) Since water leaving the sodium-cation exchanger has little hardness, it contains sodium salts.

Distilled Water

This is water that has first been turned into steam so that all of its impurities are left behind. Then through condensation, it is turned back into pure water. It is the only pure water. This water is only water free from all contamination. Distilled water may well be considered the only pure water on earth.

Water is so valuable to the entire system of the human body that it is wise to use only the Best. Use pure steam distilled water for health and well being.

Uses Of Water

Drinking is main in order to that the following are uses of water.

  • Agriculture
  • Industrial
  • Domestic
  • Recreation
  • Environmental

Properties Of Water

  • Its attraction to polar molecules.
  • High-specific heat.
  • High heat of vaporization.
  • The lower density of ice.
  • High polarity.

Attraction of polar molecules

  • Cohesion : Property of water that makes its molecules attracted to each other.
  • Adhesion : It is to tendency of water molecules to be attracted or stick to other substances.

High specific heat

Water has the highest specific heat capacity of any liquid. Specific heat is defined as the amount of heat one gram of a substance must absorb or lose to change its temperature by one degree Celsius. For water, this amount is one calorie or 4.184 Joules.

High heat of vaporization

Water in its liquid form has an unusually high boiling point temperature, a value close to 100°C. As a result of the network of hydrogen bonding present between water molecules, a high input of energy is required to transform one gram of liquid water into water vapour, an energy requirement called the heat of vaporization.

Lower density of ice

When water freezes, water molecules form a crystalline structure maintained by hydrogen bonding. Solid water, or ice, is less dense than liquid water. Ice is less dense than water because the orientation of hydrogen bonds causes molecules to push farther apart, which lowers the density.

High polarity

The two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom within water molecules (H 2O) form polar covalent bonds. While there is no net charge to a water molecule, the polarity of water creates a slightly positive charge on hydrogen and a slightly negative charge on oxygen, contributing to water’s properties of attraction.

Ideal Parameters Of Drinking And Usage Purpose Of Water

S.No. Parameters Utility Drinking
1. Ph 6.0-8.5 6.5-7.5
2. Biological oxygen demand(BOD) <30ppm NIL
3. Chemical oxygen <100ppm NIL
4. Total suspended 200ppm NIL
5. Total Color Colorless Colorless
6. Odor Odorless Odorless
7. Oil &grease <10.0ppm NIL
8. Dissolved solids(TDS) <2100ppm <200ppm
9. Hardness(permanent & temporary) not specified <100
10. E.coli NIL NIL
11. Turbidity not specified <5
12. Alkalinity not specified NIL